Part I Reading Comprehension (60 marks, 60 minutes) Section A Passage Reading (每小题 2 分，共 50 分)
Questions 1-5 are based on the following passage.
Three billion people, around 40% of the world’s population, use online social media and are spending an average of two hours every day sharing, liking tweeting (发推文)
and updating on these platforms, according to some reports. That breaks down to around half a million tweets and Snapchat photos shared every minute With social media playing such a big part in our lives, could we be sacrificing our mental health and well- being as well as our time? Since social media is relatively new to us conclusive findings are limited. Actually this is a fast-growing area of research, and clues are beginning to appear. Here are some of the findings:
A good or bad mood may spread between people on social media, according to researchers from the University of California
Researchers have looked at general anxiety caused by social media, such as feelings of restlessness and worry, and trouble sleeping and concentrating. A study published in the journal Computers and Human Behavior found that people who report using seven
or more than three time as likely as people using less than two platforms to have high levels of anxiety. However, it’s unclear how social media causes anxiety.
Humans used to spend their evenings in darkness, but now we re surrounded by artificial lighting all day night. Research has found the this can reduce the body's
production of the hormone melatonin(褪黑素)which helps sleep.
A few researchers point out that social media addiction may be harder to resist that cigarettes and alcohol.
It's clear that in many areas, not enough is known yet to draw many strong conclusions.
However, the evidence does point one way: social media affects people differently, depending on pre-existing conditions and personality traits.
1. How many hours do people spend online on average? A.Two. B. Three C. Four D. Five
2. What does the study in Computers and Human Behavior find about people using more social media?
A. They suffer more from anxiety.
B. They become more absent-minded.
C. They suffer less from troubled sleep.
D. They become more friendly to others.
3. The underlined word "this" in Paragraph Four probably refers to ?
B. artificial lighting
D. social media.
4. Social media affects people differently, depending on .
A. understanding of social media
B. the social media platforms used
C. the time spent on social media
D. pre-conditions and characters
5. What is the theme of this passage?
A. Why people go online.
B. Who uses social platforms.
C. How many people go online every day.
D. How online activities affect mental health.
Questions 6-10 are based on the following passage.
Antibiotics (抗生素)are one of the miracles of modern medicine. They have saved
countless lives. But there's another side to them. The bacteria(细菌)that live in our
body have learned how to outwit many of our most powerful antibiotics. These drug resistant bacteria are called superbugs.
Here's how a bug becomes a superbug. When you take in antibiotic, there could be some bacteria that know how to resist that antibiotic. Those smart bacteria are the ones that survive antibiotics and they flourish. And that's when you get a sharp increase of superbugs. And the more we take antibiotics, the more chances the bacteria have to become resistant to them.
So, in the words of the latest CDC ( Center for Disease Control) report, some miracle drugs no longer perform miracles, but it did come with some good news. The report says the number of deaths and infections caused by germs that resist antibiotics is decreasing. It dropped 18 percent between 2013 and now. And the number of infections caught in hospitals is down.
The bad news, according to the CDC, is that there are still too many germs that resist antibiotics, and that they can be caught anywhere in the community. The report says the answer isn't in developing more powerful antibiotics, but in using them less often. The CDC estimates that as many as one-third of the antibiotics prescriptions given in emergency rooms and doctors' offices aren't needed, but it doesn't entirely blame doctors for this, because it can be hard for them to tell when someone has a bacteria infection, or which antibiotics could be good.
6. According to the passage. What have saved many lives?
7. The underlined word “flourish” in Paragraph Two probably means
A. develop quickly
B. decrease sharply
C. die suddenly
D. run slowly
8. The number of deaths and infections caused by germs that resist antibiotics dropped
A. one third
B. one half
9. According to the CDC report, how should we deal with the antibiotics-resistant germs?
A. Giving better prescriptions, B Using antibiotics less often
C. Catching germs in the community.
D. Developing more powerful antibiotics.
10. What is the main idea of this passage?
A. We should use as many antibiotics as possible.
B. Antibiotics are effective despite drug-resistant germs.
C. Antibiotics are the greatest invention in human history.
D. Antibiotics have more positive aspects than negative effects.
Questions 11-15 are based on the following passage.
New research suggests that planting trees and oilier plants near factories could reduce pollution by almost one-third. The addition of plant life may even cost less and be more effective than technology, designed to cut pollution, a new study found. The findings were reported in the publication Environmental Science & Technology. The lead author of the study was Bhavik Bakshi, a professor at the Ohio State University.
Bakshi and other researchers collected data about air pollution and plant life in 48 of the 50 American states. They studied public records from every state other than
Alaska and Hawaii. The study attempted to show how the vegetation (植被)could
reduce the mast common pollutants ( 污染物)from industrial areas, including the production of energy from coal, oil and gas.
The research found that restoring vegetation to land cover could cut air pollutant levels an average of 27 percent in the areas studied They also found that in 75 percent of the areas, it would cost less to use plants and trees to reduce air pollution than to add new air cleaning technology.
Bakshi said that nature-based methods could result in “win-win’’ solutions that save money and are better for the environment. It found that only one piece of equipment was estimated to be more cost-effective than trees and plants. That device is an industrial boiler.
The study did not identify which kinds of trees or plants would be best at reducing air pollution. But Bakshi said the kind of vegetation likely would make a difference in air quality and that further study is needed.
The researchers predicted that the addition of trees and plants could help lower air pollution levels in both cities and rural areas. However, success rates would differ widely depending on how much land is available and current air quality levels.
1. How did the researchers conduct the research?
A. They gave up the out-dated public records.
B. They gathered information on pollution and plants.
C. They did experiments in the Ohio State University.
D. They studied data on technology in science journals.
2. could cut air pollutant levels.
A. Expanding rural areas
B. Developing Alaska and Hawaii C Producing more coal, oil and gas
D. Bringing buck vegetation to land cover
3. What is more cost-effective than trees and plants?
A. New energy.
B. An industrial boiler
C. The nature-based method
D. New cleaning technology
4. The underlined phrase "make a difference" in Paragraph Five probably means
A. be effective
B. be productive
C. take place
D. stand out
5. What docs the pas sage mainly tell us?
A. New technology can benefit the environment.
B. Air pollution has worsened in the United States.
C. Adding plant life cuts pollution and reduces cost
D. Different trees contribute differently to the environment.
Questions 16-20 are based on the following passage.
Social scientists believe that names influence personality, how were perceived (认
知)，and even our physical appearances, In tum, our appearances impact how other
people perceive us, which again affects how we feel and see ourselves. Psychologists believe there's a relationship between internals and externals that shapes us.
The researchers from Hebrew University in Jerusalem decided to test whether stereotypes(刻 板印象)and labels have an effect on physical appearance. That is to
say, they wanted to find out if the name a person is given at birth influences later physicality.
The study hypothesized that this early label marks all those who bear the same name similarly, so much so that other people can match name to face based on expectation of how someone with a certain name is likely to look. In other words name stereotypes show physically in facial appearance. The research team found that both people and computers could pick the right name for a given face with more accuracy than would result from chance. That means common ideas of how a person with a certain name would look were correct-there was a ”right” name for a type of face.
Face-name matching likely works on many levels, the study suggests. Because we have shared ideas of what names mean, people with those names may “grow into” them by adapting expected behavior, facial expressions, and looks, and others will also have certain expectations. Say your name is Rose. Social expectations may direct you to act womanly, smile gently, wear dresses, and grow your hair long. This is perhaps unconsciously expected more of a woman named for a flower than one who goes by Alex, a name that in the US is common for males and females. Alex may feel freer to bend gender stereotypes than Rose.
6. Part of the job of a psychologist might be to study .
A. how to improve people's behavior
B. how to change people's appearances
C. the relationship between mind and behavior
D. the relationship between knowledge and looks
7. The underlined word “hypothesized” in Paragraph Three probably means .
8. What docs the example about the name of Roe and Ales indicate?
A. Men and women are affected differently by their mums
B. A girl with a boy’s name will not grow into a gentle woman.
C. There is little relationship between one's name and behavior.
D. Shared ideas of names may influence how we look and behave
9. What is the author's attitude towards the study?
10. What is the main idea of the passage?
A.A good name may bring good luck.
B. Your name might influence your appearance.
C. People name babies according to their appearance.
D. Some names are more proper for women than others.
Directions: In the following passage, some sentences have been removed. For questions 21—25, choose the most suitable one from the list A—G to fit into each of the numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit into any of the gaps. You should decide on the best choice and blacken the corresponding letter on The Answer Sheet. (10 marks)
Do you often feel tired in the morning even though you've been in bed for seven or eight hours the night before? Like many people, you are not sleeping as much as you think you are 21. There is no specific number for efficiency that's been proven as linked to poor health However, according to a New York Times report about sleep quality, some experts estimate a rough number of 83 percent or above as a decent place to be:
Avoid blue light at night. Short wavelength blue light, sent out by the sun and by the screens of computers, iPods and smart-phones, makes you feel more alert. Blue light
tells your brain it's daytime.23. You can also try installing apps that can filter(过滤)blue light on your devices.
24. . Go to bed and wake up at relatively the same time. Consistency(连
贯性)is key to a good night's sleep, especially when it comes to waking up. When you
have a regular wake-up time, your brain gets used to this and moves through the sleep cycle in preparation for you to feel rested and alert at your wake up time. Roughly an hour before you wake, hormone levels increase gradually, causing you to become more alert.
Take naps One of the biggest peaks in melatonin production happens during the 1 to 3 pm time frame.
25. . If you aren't getting enough sleep at night, you' re likely to feel an overwhelming desire to sleep in the afternoon. When this happens, you’re better off taking a short nap than resorting to caffeine or strong tea to keep you awake. A short nap will give you the rest you need to get through the rest of the afternoon, and you'll sleep much better in the evening than if you take a long afternoon nap.
A. Keep a consistent sleep schedule.
B. "Sleep efficiency" is the percentage of time you actually sleep.
C. In other words, you feel most sleepy in the morning.
D. It explains why most people feel sleepy in the afternoon.
E. People find that it is difficult to sleep well.
F. Here are some tips for improving sleep efficiency.
G. Turn off your computers and phones before bed.
Section B Banked Cloze (每小题 1 分，共 10 分)
Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage
through carefully before making your choices. Please blacken the corresponding letter for each choice on The Answer Sheet. You may not use any of the words in the word bank more than once. (10 points)
Scientists who found the world’s oceans were warming faster than they preciously believed, have said their studies had errors. The study, published in Nature, found that “_(26) warming is at the high end of previous estimates”. The researchers used precise measurements between 1991 and 2016 to estimate ocean __(27)
uptake(吸) over the period.
Since the (28) of the study, two problems had come to their attention, one of
them related oxygen. ”
treating systemaitc errors in the measurements of
“We expect these two corrections will have little _(30) on our calcualtions of overall heat uptake, but with larger margins(幅度) of errors,” said a researcher. “We are redoing the calculations and _(31) corrections for Nature.”
Nature said it was looking into the _(32) . “Making sure the accuracy of the
scientific record is important to us as publishers and we recognize our _(33) to correct errors in papers that we have published, ” a spokesperson said.
The research was published weeks after a report from the United Nations _(34) that humanity has just over 10 years to act to avoid disastrous levels of global warming, urging governments to make “ (35) and far-reaching changes in all aspects of society.”
Part II Integrated Testing (30 points, 30 minutes) Section A Cloze (每小题 1 分，共 20 分)
Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are
four choices marked A, B,C and D. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then blacken the corresponding letter on The Answer Sheet.
Probably the most famous apple in history belonged to Isaac Newton. His apple became the (36) for a great scientific discovery: the force of gravity (重力). (37) ,
some historians question if the apple even existed. When examining history, people try to (38) the fact from the fiction. And in Newton’s (39) , his scientific work was the fact, and the story about the apple was all (40) .
(41) a young man, Newton left (leave-left-left) home to study science at
Cambridge University. One day while he was _(42) under an apple tree, an apple fell from a branch above and hit him (43) on the head.
He looked at the apple and (44) to think why the apple fell. (45) some of the scientific knowledge from school， Newtown realized that (46) inside Earth were always pulling objects toward its center.
That’s why the apple fell down and did not stay _(47) high up in the tree. When a person jumps, he or she does not rise quickly (48) space like a lost balloon. Gravity (49) everything towards the ground.
What’s the problem with this famous and (50)__ apple story? Most historians don’t believe it (51) happened. Then why did he tell this (52) ? Today the general belief is that Newton (53) that apple to make his theory more memorable.
Now some people don’t even remember (54) the apple fell on Newton’s head. Not everyone remembers the work. Newton did (55) the world. Much of the time, people remember the apple more than him.
36. A) result B)symbol C) theory D) object
37. A) In a word B) Besides C) However D) For one thing
38. A) separate B) believe C)show D) prevent
39. A) honor B) way C) case D) role
40. A) experiment B) crime C) science D) fiction
41. A) As B)For C) Like D) Along
42. A) marching B) resting C) arriving D) mining
43. A) purposely B) fast C) angrily D) right
44. A) brought B) began C) stuck D) grew
45. A) replying B) gaining C) applying D) providing
46. A) rocks B) forces C) shells D) materials
47. A) standing B) disappearing C) connecting D) floating
48. A) into B) over C) out of D) down
49. A) locates B) gathers C) pulls D) destroys
50. A) comforting B) upsetting C) shocking D)inspiring
51. A) ever B) forever C) never D) however
52. A) statement B) truth C) story D) news
53. A) discovered B)argued C) spread D) invented
54. A) what B) why C) who D) which
55. A) change B) repair C) protect D) lift
Section B Short Answer Questions (每小题 2 分，共 10 分)
Directions: In this part there is a short passage followed by five questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements with no more than 10 words. Please write your answers on The Answer Sheet. (10 marks)
A friend told me an experience she had in the hospital. As she lay terrified on the wheeling bed being rolled towards the operating room, a male orderly (勤杂工)
appeared by her side and quietly took her hand. He walked beside her all the way. Her terror become less intense, when they reached the operating room, he gently put her hand down and she was rolled in, She was still terrified, but the feeling of being cared for filled more of her mind than her fear.
When she awoke in her room, the surgery successful, all she remembered was that hand in hers and the safe and cared-for way she felt at that time.
"I don’t remember the color of his skin or anything about him" my friend said gently. "but I'll always remember the act of compassion."
My friend will remember that act long after she has forgotten most of the events in her life. This small act of comfort shows the orderly’s ability to open his heart to others. The orderly in my friend's life opened himself to her and she will never forget him.
You do not need to bug everyone you meet ,but your heart can he open. You do not need to talk to every stranger, but your heart can be open. Openness to others as you would like to be open to is love, Can you live with an open heart, even while others are frightened? Love is not taking advantage of die weaknesses of others. It is making the needs of others as important as your own. Love is like a fire that is out of control. Once
lit, it cannot be contained. You may strive for moderation(适度;节制)in diet, exercise,
and work, but striving for moderation in love is like striving for moderation in breathing.
Practice moderation in all things except love.
56. How did my friend feel as she lay on the wheeling bed?
57.How did she feel after the orderly took her hand?
58.What did the orderly's small act of comfort show about him?
59.Love is not taking advantage of the weaknesses of others, but making
60.The last paragraph asks us to